Navajo man in ceremonial dress with mask and body paint (1904)
Update: This picture was taken by Edward Curtis, a photographer famous for his pictures of the American West. Curtis has many great pictures worth seeking out, especially ones of Native Americans. [Note: According to Wikipedia, "Curtis has been praised as a gifted photographer but also criticized for manipulating his images by professional ethnologists.")
I've been eagerly awaiting Kent MacKenzie's 1961 film The Exiles -- due out on DVD in early 2009 -- and a friend of mine just told me that the film opens with a drumbeat over some of Curtis' photos.